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La place du mariage coutumier dans l’Afrique moderne

Lundi 12 Août 2019, le monde musical africain et ivoirien en particulier, s’est réveillé sur une triste nouvelle. En effet, Ange Didier Huon de son nom de scène DJ Arafat est mort à la suite d’un accident de circulation. Et il a été proclamé mort à l’hôpital. Cette mort a soulevé beaucoup de questions liées à la sécurité des motos, au port du casque de protection, a la rapidité des services de secours, a la superstition à l’africaine et bien sûr à la place du mariage coutumier en Afrique. L’illustre disparue avait une vie de famille avec ses enfants et sa femme avec laquelle il partageait une fille. Avec sa femme ils ont fait la dote ou mariage coutumier selon la tradition africaine. Cependant des spéculations sur la toile ont suggéré que du que le couple n’a pas eu le temps de célébrer le mariage civil du coup la dame est mise à l’écart que ça vie doit changer. Nous expliquerons ici le mariage coutumier ou la date et aussi expliquerons pourquoi l’on célèbre le mariage civil et religieux. Puis nous donneront notre opinion.

Le mariage coutumier est la célébration du mariage selon la tradition africaine. Durant la cérémonie la famille des futurs époux discutent et trouve un compromis sur le prix à payer pour la dote . C’est une tradition africaine qui dans les mœurs de la la vie courante a plus de valeur que le mariage civil. La célébration du mariage coutumier se fait différemment selon les pays et les tribus. Mais d’une manière générale, la famille de la femme fait une liste des choses à apporter pour constituer l’union . Et puis l’on discute sur le prix. Même dans les pays anglophones d’Afrique tel que le Nigeria dans la cérémonie de mariage traditionnel on parle du wine carrying et du bride price.

Au Congo Brazzaville que je connais mieux que les autres pays l’union de mariage est valable aux yeux des parents de la mariée que si la cérémonie du port de vin accompagnée des éléments demandés dans la fameuse liste sont apportées,en plus de cela il faut ajouter le prix de la dote qui est fixé selon les familles a selon on ajoute la valeur que la famille donne à leur fille . La célébration du mariage traditionnel est en tout cas surtout dans les pays africains qui ont subi la colonisation d’assimilation tout ce qui reste de la culture africaine.https://youtu.be/eYykN8UOP6w

Le mariage civil, ou white wedding
comme il est appelé dans les pays anglophones est une introduction de l’administration coloniale. Celui c’est celui qui confère les droits civiques a l’image de la loi française. Puisque c’est le code civil français qui s’applique ici. Mais le code civil du Congo dans certains articles parle du mariage coutumier et va plus loin jusqu’à fixer le prix de la dote à 50.000 francs cfa.

Mon opinion est que du fait que, dans toute l’Afrique moderne on valorise le mariage coutumier ,et que la société africaine ne donne de la valeur ou de la considération à l’union que s’il ya eu célébration du mariage traditionnel ou coutumier, celui ci doit être considéré comme mariage au sens civil du term.l’institution du mariage coutumier doit être régie par le droit civil que ça soit clair. Les époux doivent jouir des droits civils qui instituent le mariage. En réalité, le mariage coutumier doit être considéré comme un mariage aux yeux de la loi. Ceci évitera la confusion. Le but de la loi c’est de protéger les intérêts de tous.

Au cas contraire il ne faut pas faire des cérémonies à titre symbolique qui n’ont aucune valeur juridique. Il n’ya que nous meme qui devront valoriser, embellir et pérenniser nos traditions. On est fatigué de voir la vie de quelqu’un changée parce que la coutume n’est pas claire sur les questions de succession ,de veuvage…Le devoir de la société est d’améliorer la coutume ou tradition. Ce qui se trouve dans le code civil français utilisé en Afrique pour des raisons que nous connaissons est la codification des traditions des autres. Et si nous avons accepté ce code dans nos sociétés alors nous avons le devoir de tout codifier et harmoniser pour éviter la confusion, et surtout éviter que les gens braquent la coutume ou le droit civil quand ça les arrangent.

Aux femmes africaines, nous nous sentons honorées et accomplis quand nos hommes font la dot et le mariage civil et religieux. Mais nous devons nous avons le devoir de lutter pour que toutes ces cérémonies aient la même valeur devant la loi. En gros la luttons pour que les droits conférés à un mariage civil soit les mêmes pour le mariage coutumier. C’est une question de survie et de modernisation de la coutume. Voici les commentaires sur cette question du Facebook.

“La pauvre, apparemment c’est tt le monde qui rentre dans la maison pour récupèrer les biens darafat, on la voi nul part. Courage ma sœur, Dieu fera ton palabre, grâce à toi, Arafat s’en va en connaissant le véritable amour qu’il n’a jamais eu. Tu a su le stabiliser Malgres tout.” Taina la poupée Russe

“Vraiment mon frère. Je suis choquée. Cette femme qui a porté ses enfants et qui l’a supporté est complètement dans l’ombre. Il semble qu’elle a failli se suicider.

Dans ce cas que nos autorités annulent la dote et que seul le mariage civil soit considéré vu comment les veuves qui sont seulement dotées sont traitées. Cette femme devait être aux côtés de Tina la mère d’arafat pour pleurer. Je ne la vois sur aucune photo où les hommages sont rendus à l’artiste.

Ça fait très mal” Linda Ngando

“Mais pourquoi nos institution attendent la fin du monde pour rendre valable a titre juridique le mariage coutumier qui est d abord un lègue de nos ancêtres?

Donc c est mariage des blanc qui est mieux

Colonies jusqu a quand?” Neph Nkori

La sorcellerie c’est quand tu es pressé qu’un des membres de ta famille meurt pour hérité des biens.C’est pourquoi en Afrique les papiers sont importants.La seule personne qui peut te pleure sans penser à l’argent c’est ta femme.Ta famille ce qui les intéressent ses les biens que tu as laissé.Du courage ma chérie ainsi va la vie c’est ton destin que tu dois affronter.Nul ne peut te prendre ce que Dieu t’a donné 🙄🙄🙄 Hulima Diallo

Tout ceci pour dire que c’est une question brillante et notre génération trouvera une solution pour harmoniser les choses.

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Croissance demographique: frein au developpement du continent Africain??

le 20 Mai 2019, il ya eu un debat entre differents candidats au parlement europeen sur la LCI. Durant ce debat , il etait demande aux candidats de donner leur solutions a l’immigration massive en Europe. Mr Nicolas Dupont Aignan candidat de Debout la France a souleve la question tabou selon lui, du controle des naissance en Afrique. il a stipule que “l’immigration est un drame humanitaire. Mais la premiere des choses a regler est de retablir nos frontieres nationales. Selon lui, aucun pays au monde n’a regle les problemes d’immigration massive sans controler ses frontieres. ceci parait raisonnable.

Cependant, c’est son autre solution qui a choque l’opinion. En effet selon lui, il faut controler les naissances en Afrique comme en chine pourque les pays se developpent et du coup les africains ne seront plus interesser a immigrer en Europe. il a rencherit ses propos en disant que ” si la Chine a reussi faire sa transition economique c’est car elle s’est attaque a ce tabou du controle des naissances.” la question que nous nous posons ici est de savoir est ce que c”est rellement la demographie galopante qui constitue un frein au developement du continent. il ya t’il pas d’autres indices economiques? et les autres questions tabous le Franc CfA et le resources naturelles.

l‘attaque contre la fertilite de la femme Africaine. Depuis un certain temps la fertilite de la femme africaine fait l’objet de nombreux attaques. comme nous l’avions deja dit dans l’intoduction Mr Dupont Aignon pense que “il faut controler les naissance en Afrique commme en chine pour que les pays se developpent. est ce que ceci est une decision qui doit etre prise par un candidat au parlement europeen? Ce qui est sur c’est que les politiques Francais font preuve de paternaliste lorsqu’ils parlent des problemes du continent Africain. c’est comme ci ses pays africains n’ont pas des leaders et les pays Europeens en tant que “mere Patrie” devraitent decider a leur place. En outre, la femme africaine est la premiere victime de ce paternalisme. Toujours en train de vouloir decider sur combien d’enfants la femme en afrique doit avoir. Ce qui est c’est que la femme en afrique est assez responsable pour savoir ce qu’elle veut faire de son corps.

Ce qui est encore plus curieux c’est que ce n’est pas la premiere fois qu’ un homme politique Francais tienne des propos lies a la fertilite de la femme Africaine. le president de la France a tenu des propos similaires le 8 juillet 2017 lors de la reunion des G20. en effet selon le journal le MONDE, repondant a la question d’un journaliste ivoirien, a savoir combien les pays du G20 sont prets a mettre pour sauver l’afrique, le president de la France a ecarte l’idee du plan Marshall qui d’ailleurs a sauver l’Europe apres la deuxieme mondiale en disant que: les pays europeens qui ont profites du plan Marshall avaient leurs equilibres leur frontieres et leur stability.” Stabilite, equilibre, et frontieres apres une guerre qui a duree 5 ans et durant laquelle certains pays etaient sous occupation? Selon lui ” le defi de l’Afrique est different, il est beaucoup plus profond il est civilisationnel” et a fini ses propos en s’attaquant encore a la fertilite de la femme africaine en disant “quand des pays ont encore sept et huit enfants par femme, vous pouvez decidez d’y depenser des milliards d’euros, vous ne les stabiliserez pas”.

Croissance demographique est elle un frein au developpement? nous disons pas necessairement. En realite lorsque la population croit la richesse nationale doit progresser plus rapidement encore pourque chacun puisse esperer voir son niveau de vie s’ameliore. ceci selon bon nombres d’economistes. En realite, une population jeune est un atout pour un pays. En effet, cette population c’est vrai quand elle est tres jeune, elle represente des charges pour leur famille et de la societe en general. Mais lorsque elle grandit elle contribue activement au developpement economique . la jeunesse africaine aujourd’hui est eduquee , elle cree des entreprises dans le continent. elle est en train de relever les defis bien que le chemin est encore long a parcourir. il serait plus interessant pour les politiques europeens de mentionner d’autres indicateurs economiques tel que le PIB, le revenue national Brut, l’education, la sante, le niveau de vie. L’accent devrait etre plus mis sur le Revenu national brut, la taxation des companies concessionaires, le clarite sur l’exploitation des resources naturelles. voici entre autre les questions tabous. a cela on peut ajouter le FCfa, le pacte colonial, l’exploitation des resources naturelles bref ceci fera l’objet de discussions pour autre occasions. ce qui est vrai c,est que la croissance demographique a l’heure actuelle n’est le plus grand defi du continent. les grands defis sont lies au pact colonial qui a continue a assujetir le continent, la transparence sur le franc CfA , et la transparence sur la gestion des resources naturelles tel que le colton, la diamant, cobalt, petrole et autres . Pour finir, nous terminons avec les propos du President Ghanaen Nana Akufor Addo “quand tu regardes l’Afrique et considerant ses resources , c’est l’Afrique qui devrait donner de l’argent a d’autres pays…”

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La danse est elle dangereuse pour l’uterus?

le 30 Avril 2019, j’ai lu un article tres interessant sur the dailymail.com. il est reporte dans cet article qu’un doctor chinois dans la ville de Xuzhou a recu une patiente don’t L’uterus s’est detache de son corps. En effet, la patiente a declare au mededin que pendant qu’elle etait entrain de danser en public, elle a senti son uterus descendre de son corps. Prise par la peur, elle est venu en pleurant pour un traitement. elle a ete traite par chirurgie et ell se porte apparemment bien. Ce qui a attire mon attention, c’est reclamation selon laquelle danser tres fort a provoque cette descente de l’uterus. est ce que reellement la danse peut provoquer la relaxation des muscles qui soutiennent l’uterus.

Sans etre expert en gynecology, ma premiere reponse est non. sinon tout ces dehanchements exhibes dans la danse africaine seraient interdits et declares dangereux pour la sante. Heureusement que selon le doctor et autre expert, la danse n’a pas provoque cette condition la pur cette dame de 60 ans. Elle souffrait plus tot d’une condition appelee uterine prolapse ou prolapsus uterin. selon le daily mail, le doctor a plutot pense que cette patiente a du donne naissance a un gros bebe et cela a provoque le prolapsus uterin. Et sa condition n’a surement jamais ete traitee et s’est deterioree avec l’age. Qu’est ce que reelleement le prolapsus uterin?
Communement appele la descente des organs le prolapses est une complication gynecologique. ” On parle de prolapsus, quand l’uterus, la vessie ou du rectum ne sont pas soutenus et s’effrondrent.” En effet, c’est le fait que l’ensemble des muscles qui soutiennent le plancher pelvien relachent . c’est une maladie frequente chez les femmes a partir de 45 et plus.

les causes de la maladie sont l’accouchement difficile specialement l’accouchement d’un gros bebe, l’age et la menaupose, les interventions chirurgicales,certaines activites professionelles qui imposent le port e Lourdes charges et la station debout prolongee. Il est donc recommende de commencer les exercices du plancher pelvien juste apres l’accouchement. et il ne faut pas negliger ou laisser les conditions comme la constipation, les allergies de la toux et les rhinitis intraitees. Ceci peux prevenir le prolapsus. Controler son poids peut aider a eviter le prolapsus. En cas de cas avance de la maladie, le traiment est une operation chirurgicale

La danse ne provoque pas donc de prolapsus uterin. Dieu merci car renoncer a la danse serait tres triste. La danse est une expression culturelle indeniable pour nous autres. A travers la danse on exprime non seulement la joie ou la gaiete, mais aussi la tristesse, l’amour le culte religieux et meme la guerison.

source: dailymail, doctissimo


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Is the Congo Brazzaville on the path for debt relief ?

The answer to this simple question will be yes.  However, a press release of April 19 2018 by the IM makes it difficult to answer by a simple yes to this question. In according to that press release the republic of Congo and the IMF came to an “understanding”, whatever that really mean. One thing is sure that the IMF and the authorities of the republic of Congo have concluded their negotiations on April the 18th. These negotiations started on April the 3rd of 2018. The purpose of these negotiations was according to the IMF press release number 18/137, to discuss the Congolese authorities economic, and financial program and possible financial support by the IMF.

After 15 days of work, the parties to the negotiations came to the conclusion that the Congolese authorities still have a lot of work to do in order to secure support from the IMF. Basically, the Congolese authorities need to take “bold and immediate governance reforms to put into effect the government proclaimed intention to make a break with the past policies and practices.” Said the IMF press release.

The Congolese authorities on their part have pledged to  publish governance study that guide future reforms in the area of governance, transparency and public finance management, to establish an independent anti corruption body with full investigation powers and an asset declaration system for high level officials, to reinforce oversight over large investment projects and state owned enterprises such as oil companies, to report fully to the parliament and the population on the management of natural and large infrastructure investment projects, to enhance transparency in oil sector with view to increase the share of the state in the nation natural resources, to approach all companies exploiting natural resources with time bound requests to declare any claims they may have on the government share of resources .

This decisions are necessary in order for the country to secure a debt relief. This are the requirements that the IMF are making to the authorities have the Congo.  the country is in deep recession.  Judging from all that is been put out through the press release are officials statements,  the negotiations with the IMF are still focused on the economic based on resources and especially oil. Among the recommendations of the IMF, is the the need for the Congolese authorities to ” develop capacity to systematically reconcile all government transactions backed by natural resources.” The IMF meaning its staffs, also thinks that a strong participation of civil society will be critical for the success of the governance reforms. The IMF and the Congolese authorities economic talks mainly focused on auditing the oil sector in order for the country to regain confidence of the investors in order to secure a debt relief. If this mission that started about a year ago purpose is to audit the oil sector, it will be a failure on a long run. The Congo Brazzaville has always been under some type of program by the IMF. In the 90, the program was called structural adjustments program. And of course , because the Congo Brazzaville is one of those resources rich countries of Guinea Golf, any program that the IMF and its partners will implement will be guaranteed by natural resources. Frankly, it is kind of strange why it is taking so long  to put the country on such a program, especially when the work they have been doing is mostly oriented on natural resources. it seems like the authorities are still hoping for the oil price to pick up to a level it was 4 to 5 years ago.

When a country is in deep recession like the Congo Brazzaville is in right now, without being an economist, it is fair to say the solutions should come from a broader economic picture. It is important for the Congo Brazzaville authorities to realize that the solution to the country’s financial problems can be found beyond the equation called debt plus oil equal economy. This is a recipe for failure and it has always been. There is a say that bankruptcy is not always a bad thing. It strange how in the middle of talks with the IMF, a meeting of all finance ministers of the CFA zone countries is held in Brazzaville. And at the end of the meeting, a pledge is made my the French finance minister to help the Congo brazzaville with 135 millions Euro in aid which is actually another debt that will be guaranteed by the future oil production of the Congo. How can you pledge to land such amount to a country that is in default and unable to pay its debts?

The Congo will be better of focusing on non oil economy by developing a private sector and reorganizing its fiscal system. After the fall of crude oil prices, many countries, whether it is in Africa or Asia that relied on oil for their economy were in deep trouble. Most of them made a shift to non oil economy, and the results has been spectacular for some of them . This is the case for many Asian countries such as Saudi Arabia or Kuwait. Many economic experts have been noticing there is an economic rebound in this part of the world by the end of 2017. the predictions are the economy of countries such as Saudi Arabia will fully recover by the year 2018.  how did these countries recover quickly compare to those of Africa such as the Congo Brazzaville?  well , in the case of Saudi Arabia for example, the country entered into two years of austerity , and rolled out a plans that balance the need to rebuild state coffers while avoiding crippling private business said an article on Bloomberg markets of December 2017. A shift to non oil economy made a different. In fact, non oil economy is an engine to job creation. while assessing the situation of Timor Leste, the Asian bank of development prescribe the same path for this country to  attain a sustainable economic results.

The way forward for the Congo Brazzaville is to create a vigorous private sector  in order to grow the economy and improve the livelihood of its population.  for the private sector to be vigorous, the authorities need to improve the investments climate y enhancing dialogue among the population and the authorities,  to strengthen private sector contracts and create  a judicial system that is capable of settling commercial dispute in timely manner.  It is said that “a government is more likely to design credible and workable reforms when its ministries work together in coordinated way and when it engages with the private sector. In the Congo Brazzaville women are really active in the private sector.  However, the private sector is still informal.  Formalizing these activities that women participate in will  be beneficial for the government in order to collect revenue. The Congo also need to rethink its fiscal system. It is safe to say that in the case of the there is not really a need of reform when it come to tax issues. The problem is enforcement of the system. and this is what the negotiation mission program work on with the authorities of Brazzaville. and certainly there are working really hard to raise money that the state need in order to be operational. The Congo also need to rethink its educational system. It is clear from the way the public finances are  managed, there is an issue of promoting mathematics, accounting or public accounting.  In the Congolese educational system, by the time student enter high school, they get to pick their specialty too early. Students will choose to focus subject related to literature( philosophy, franc,  history…) or to science( mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology). Early on in their life students will neglect either or subjects. Those who have chosen literature will neglect all science subjects and vice versa. But in the real world you will need all these subject matters.

The Congo is indeed on a path to get on one of those IMF programs and get its debt relief, would it be a sustainable program certainly not if there is not a serious review of the fiscal system and a promotion of the private sector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The difficulties of saving the Congo basin from deforestation

The Congo basin play an important role in regulating the world climate. That is why the UN has approved a financial mechanism to curb deforestation. The countries of the Congo basin have been turning to other power for loans. Many projects have been given to partners who are not really concerned about global warming Many contracts have been signed here and there for economic reasons. However, this has an impact on the global mechanisms to curb deforestation.

According to Marlow Hood the only UN-approved financial mechanism to curb deforestation, a key driver of global warming, has bulldozed the rights of forest-dwelling peoples on three continents and needs to be fixed, experts say. The latest sign that these schemes — which pay to restore tropical forests rather than cut them down — are falling short comes from the Democratic

Republic of Congo (DRC), where 20 pilot projects in Mai-Ndombe province have upended indigenous communities, according to a detailed report from the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), a Washington DC-based research group. Backed by the DRC government and international financing, private companies that manage huge tracts of forest have ignored the land rights of local peoples, engineered displacements, and avoided prior consent requirements, the report says.

They have also failed to share the windfall such programmes can bring, said lead author Marine Gauthier, who has monitored the projects in the western province of Mai-Ndombe since 2012.

“Indigenous peoples simply do not benefit from REDD+ because there is no benefit-sharing plan in place,” she told AFP, using the UN acronym for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. So far, more than $90 million (73 million euros) have been disbursed or committed in the province for forest-related climate change projects.

Funding from Norway, France, Britain, the European Union and the UnitedStates, along with private sources and NGOs, is funnelled through the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility. Destroying forests intensifies global warming in two ways. Losing a wooded area the size of Greece each year not only reduces Earth’s capacity to absorb carbon dioxide, it releases huge amounts of the planet-warming gas into the atmosphere, accounting for nearly a fifth of global emissions.

– Tension unresolved –

Tropical forests provide livelihoods and anchor the cultural identities of at least 250 million indigenous people. Research has shown that stewardship by local communities significantly slows the pace of deforestation.

“Unfortunately, REDD+ projects in the DRC — as currently structured — are channelling money to private sector actors who do not have the same incentives to protect the forests,” said Alain Frechette, RRI’s director of strategic analysis. Negotiated under the UN’s 1992 climate change treaty, REDD+ projects began a decade ago, but many are on hold until 2020, when the mechanism’s “strategic framework” will be finalised.

In the meantime, it is a work in progress. Indeed, pilot programmes in dozens of countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa have, all too often, shortchanged local communities and underperformed as a bulkhead against climate change — their primary goal.

“REDD+ is evolving in a context of rights abuses, displacement and dispossession, threats and harassment over territories, and the repression and assassination of environmental activists by state and private forces,” the non-profit Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) found in a 2017 review of academic literature.More than 200 environmental campaigners, nearly half from indigenous tribes, were murdered around the world in 2016 alone, according to watchdog Global Witness.

– Corruption a key concern –

“It is unclear how indigenous peoples will benefit from REDD+,” the CIFOR review concluded. “The tension between conserving carbon stocks” — the CO2 locked in standing forests — “and providing rights and livelihoods has not been solved.”Corruption in countries with weak governance has been a major concern.

In the DRC — home to 50 percent of Africa’s tropical forests — abuses related to land tenure conflicts have also turned violent, though not, so far, within REDD+ projects, Gauthier said. As far back as the 1970s, some 6,000 Batwa Pygmies were forcibly expelled from the Kahuzi Biega National Park — collateral damage to a conservation project.

In Mai-Ndombe, another group of pygmies were recently barred by foreign concession holders with a REDD+ contract from using traditional slash-and-burn agriculture because their ancestral forests had already been severely degraded by industrial logging operations.

“The situation is highly conflictual,” said Gauthier. By design, REDD+ pays to reduce CO2 emissions from deforestation, but not for keeping healthy forests intact.

This, critics say, can create perverse incentives. A company in Mai-Ndombe, for example, recently cleared a wooded area under a logging concession, and then applied for a “conservation concession” on the same tract.

“After getting money from harvesting the trees, in other words, they want to get REDD+ money to plant some more,” Gauthier said. The solution, many experts say, is not to scrap REDD+. “REDD+ has brought unparalleled attention to the importance of forests in the global strategy to fight climate change,” said Frechette.

“But there are fundamental flaws in its conception, especially the lack ofimportance given to rights of indigenous peoples. It needs to be fixed.”

©️AFP

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Violence against women in the Congo Brazzaville

 

Picture from un.org (celebration of November 25 in Monrovia)

The last thirty years have been difficult for the Congo Brazzaville. It started with the abondamment of the socialist regime which has been adopted by the country since 1963. In 1991, after a national conference, during which the country has decided to change the form of government, the Congo adopted a democratic regime with a president that was elected. Since then, the country has been affected by an instability due to civil unrest, war and really serious conflict that takes roots in the tribal diversity.With this instability, the Congolese women conditions have been deteriorated. Women have seen a rise of violence against them that was not known before the multiple wars that the country went to.the nature of violence against women can been notice in the rise of cases of rape, violence that are rooted in’ the traditions and customs still persists. Besides, all these cases there is a lack of judiciary protections for women. Our thoughts on this month of March, the women month as it has been referred, are focused on these issues.

ThenatureofviolenceagainstwomenintheCongoBrazzaville

After the multiple civil wars and the political instability that followed, the Congo Brazzaville have a significant amount of cases of rape. The other form of violence is rooted on the custom and tradition.

Rape against women

In recent years, rape has been become the number one cause of violence against women. Rape has not always been common in Congolese society. The cases of rape were really rare. However, by the the early 90´s , the country went into a lot of political events that created a lot of civil unrest, tribal conflicts and wars. We think about the war, in 1993 and 1994, another armed conflict in 1997 and 1998, and the most recent one that started in 2016 and it is still going on.

This atmosphere of war has left the Congolese women very vulnerable. In fact, a report by a NGO Medecin sans frontières , published in french by Francoise Bouchet-Saulnier, it said that a thousand of women raped during the civil war presented themselves at the hospital called Makelekele in Brazzaville in 1999.These are only the cases that have been reported. With the new war that is going on at this very moment, some new cases of rape have been reported by sources that have not been verified yet by leschroniquesdeladiaspora.com

Other form of violence

In Brazzaville, violence of other nature than rape, still exist. In fact many women are still being beaten by their husbands, partners or significant other. In most cases, it is not reported on the media because it has been commonly accepted that it is ok for a man to correct his wife by beating them. This is not ok and it should not be.A study conducted in 2015, by the Congo Brazzaville minister of women rights promotion concluded that among the 600 women that were surveyed , 62% of them were victims of physical, emotional, mental and psychological violence.(ref actualités.agenceinfonet.com).The sad part is that there seem to be a lack of protection.

Lack of protection from violence

In the Congo Brazzaville , the laws to protect women against violence of all nature exist. The Congo model his judiciary system to that of France. Therefore, most laws that are recognized in France are in the Congo. The penal code of the Congo Brazzaville recognizes all sort of violence that women can be subject to. And the same code goes even further by recognizing sexual abuse during conflicts. This is the case of article 330 and 340.

However, these laws that were meant to protect women are not well known in the country. Often, all cases of rape, physical and psychological abuse are not reported to the authorities. Women are still vulnerable and lack protection against all sort of violence against them.

The cases of rape during war is even worst. In fact, for these particular cases the government or maybe the entire society failed to protect those women who were victims of sexuel violence during the events or civil war of 1993-1994, 1997, and 1997-1998. A law number 21-99, of December 20 1999, gave an amnesty to all those who committed war crimes such as rape…The purpose of this amnesty was to reconcile the Congolese society with itself, to promote peace. However the well being of women was not taken in consideration.

The Congolese women are still vulnerable to violence. Society has so far failed to protect women. That why,on this day of women international day, our thoughts really go to those women who have all their life have to live with the burden of violence and its consequences. So many of them are raped everyday. May God protect all women who victims of violence all around the world.

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The sustainability of the UN in achieving its goal of global peace

September 18 2017  kicks off the annual general assembly of the United Nations. This is an occasion for leaders of the entire world to get together and discuss the many issues that are going on the world. It is an occasion for the people of the world to give a thought on this world body’s work. We are allow here to wonder if the objectives that the United Nations set for itself are sustainable in today’s world. At today’s opening words of the general assembly session,a prominent world leader call for the need to ” reform the United Nations in order to better serve the people it represents.”  Indeed, the UN does need to be refomed in order to adress the needs of today’s world.  Therefore, what types of reforms will better serve the people leaving in Africa.

We ought to give the UN its main merit and achievement the maintenance of international order. Since its creation, the UN had been able to maintain the world peace has it is related to the war between each states. Most conflicts had been resolved through diplomacy. And, France and Germany which had been at the center of the wars have achieved the goals of leaving in peace.  Genocide has been avoided with the exception of the one that occurred in 1994 in Rwanda.

The UN can also be accredited for its humanitarian actions. In fact, the humanitarian actions has been the main achievement of the UN. In countries where there are civil wars, the United Nations through its peace keeping mission, was able to  preserve the dignity of humans. It is for the preservation of human dignity that the United Nations broke its principle of sovereignty to intervene in Rwanda after more than a million people killed.

As we must know, the principle of sovereignty is at the essence of the United Nations existence. And its charter on article 2.7 states clearly that “Nothing contained in the present charter shall authorize the UN to intervienne in the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the members to submit such matters to settlement under the present charter.” How can the UN better serve the people it represents when the principle of sovereignty limits its actions to matters that are generated by conflicts between states but not within each states.

For couple of years, we have assisted in many constitutional crisis in some African counties of the sub Saharan zone ( the Congo, the RDC, Gabon and so for). These constitutional crisis have been generated by the manipulation of the constitution in order to maintain dictatorships within the continent leaving the people of these nations powerless. The wars within these nations do alienate human rights. In some locations because of these civil conflicts, a lot young people do not go to school for a long period of time , women are raped and the government can’t provide security for its own population. This really goes against the the universal declaration of humans rights adopted in 1948. This is just to say that there are a lot of humanitarian opportunities for the UN that we wonder if the principle of sovereignty ought to be rethink. The millennium development goals declaration in which, the UN set to eradicate extreme poverty, to achieve universal primary education, to promote gender equality and empower women, to reduce child mortality.., can not be sustainable as long as these dictatorships remained unchecked, are enjoying the principle of sovereignty that let them inflict suffering to their own people. The reform should consider as well the humanitarian crisis and not to wait for a million people to be killed in order to intervene.  One life is as important as the life of a million people.